In a nationwide memorial handle at Oslo Cathedral simply two days after the assaults, Stoltenberg known as for “extra democracy, extra openness, and extra humanity.”
Talking with CNN’s “Amanpour” present in an interview to mark the anniversary, Stoltenberg — now NATO secretary-general — repeated that message and applauded the best way Norwegians had responded. However, he warned, the “hatred remains to be on the market.”
The creator of one of many reviews, Dr. Jacob Aasland Ravndal, informed CNN it appeared extra restricted than media protection would recommend. “There was in fact quite a lot of concern after the assaults that they might generate copycat assaults,” he mentioned. However “considerably surprisingly,” he mentioned, there have not been many clear-cut instances of direct inspiration from Breivik.
However though Tarrant claimed to have been impressed by Breivik, investigators discovered that he had began his planning a while earlier than he learn Breivik’s manifesto. “So even there, you may query how a lot of an influence Breivik had,” Ravndal mentioned. Tarrant’s personal manifesto may be very totally different from Breivik’s, together with in its politics, he added.
Inside Norway, analysis signifies that the far proper has not gained a lot attraction general for the reason that assaults and has been unable to prove supporters in any numbers on the streets, Ravndal mentioned.
“In fact in Norway, as all over the place else, on-line exercise has grown over these 10 years,” he mentioned. “However whether or not that displays a considerable enhance of far-right exercise or just mirrors the expansion of social media on the web, that is very troublesome to say.”
Breivik, in the meantime, had set off by automobile on the 25-mile journey to Utoya Island, the place a Labour Get together summer time youth camp was happening. Posing as a police officer who was checking on safety following the Oslo assault, he caught a ferry to the island and carried out a taking pictures spree during which 69 individuals died — most of them youngsters. Many others have been critically wounded.
In response to Professor Matthew Feldman, director of the UK-based Centre for Evaluation of the Radical Proper (CARR), Breivik’s doc can nonetheless “simply” be discovered within the darker reaches of the web regardless of efforts to take away it.
That manifesto was “paradigmatic,” Feldman mentioned, “not simply because it confirmed what one particular person can do by way of the horrific lack of life” but additionally in its focusing on of Muslims and what Breivik known as “cultural Marxism.”
Regardless of this backdrop, Breivik’s actions and manifesto have gained restricted traction, in response to Ravndal.
His evaluation for C-REX signifies that “to start with the far-right throughout the board rejected him,” mentioned Ravndal. A web based assist community that was established for Breivik later collapsed. It was solely with the emergence of on-line boards like 4chan and 8chan that Breivik as soon as once more began to get optimistic mentions, Ravndal mentioned.
“The principle discovering, all in all, each relating to ways but additionally for political, ideological assist, is that it has been surprisingly little,” he mentioned. “It has been potential to seek out assist, however luckily lower than one may need frightened about initially contemplating the excessive loss of life toll and all the eye these assaults bought globally.”
Right now, the talk has shifted in elements of Norwegian society to broader ideological questions, Ravndal mentioned.
Some — significantly within the youth wing of the Labour Get together — really feel that there has not been a reckoning with the nation’s far-right motion, the largest participant during which is the populist, right-wing Progress Get together, he mentioned.
“We should all stand collectively towards violent extremism — no matter whether or not it comes from the ‘far proper’, ‘far left’ or excessive interpretations of faith,” the assertion mentioned. “Solely the extremists will win if we exclude one another from the grief after July 22 and weaken the unity across the wrestle for democracy, freedom of expression and equality.”
Labour has promised that if it wins energy in elections this September, it should arrange a brand new fee to take a look at radicalization.
There’s additionally debate about whether or not the assault ought to be interpreted as an assault on Norwegian society as a complete, or as an assault on the Labour Get together particularly, Ravndal mentioned. “Right now, some inside the Labour Get together maybe really feel that that a part of the story has been uncared for a bit.”
Feldman considers that Norway’s response was formed by the sense that the perpetrator was “certainly one of their very own,” as have been the victims, with no sense of “otherness” to power a extra multicultural response.
“Norway basically requested itself this query, and it is a very legitimate one … ‘How did Norwegian society produce such a monster?'” he mentioned. “It is a very inward-looking query.”
Against this, he mentioned, New Zealand took a way more international method because it checked out what led as much as the Christchurch assaults. This was partly as a result of Tarrant, an Australian, had focused worshipers at mosques, a lot of whom have been foreign-born.
He hopes to win additional commitments to counter extremist content material on-line at an occasion he’s concerned with in Bergen, Norway, subsequent month.
Breivik’s ideology ‘remains to be on the market’
Chatting with CNN earlier this month, Stoltenberg spoke of the shock he felt as he realized the dimensions of the horrors perpetrated by Breivik — and the private disappointment it introduced, since he knew lots of the victims.
He additionally stood by the message he delivered to the nation because it was nonetheless reeling from the July 22 assaults.
“I nonetheless consider that our reply was the precise one,” Stoltenberg informed CNN. “[Breivik] needed to assault our free, open democratic societies. So the very best response is extra openness, extra democracy, as a result of then we show that he’s not successful, we’re successful.
“He demonstrated hatred. One of the best response to hatred is love. So … I actually welcomed the sturdy message from the individuals of Norway, as (we) have seen additionally in lots of different nations which were attacked, that we get up for our values.”
That however, Stoltenberg doesn’t consider that Breivik has been fully defeated.
“He’s convicted, he’s in jail. However his ideology, that’s nonetheless on the market. And due to this fact we have to proceed — I feel we by no means will probably be within the place the place we will say that we’ve got received the struggle, we will shut the chapter combating towards extremism.”
Since 2011, Norway has carried out measures to guard — so far as potential — towards such assaults sooner or later, Stoltenberg mentioned. And, he added, Brevik — whose 21-year sentence could possibly be prolonged sooner or later if he nonetheless poses a risk — has misplaced in a single key respect.
“We’ve to know that the aim of this assault was to alter Norway basically. And … sure, in fact, this will probably be a part of Norway’s historical past,” he mentioned. “It is going to be a part of who we’re so long as we exist. However basically, it has not modified who we’re.”
CNN’s Frederik Pleitgen contributed to this report.